UN Resolution 1718 and Sanctions Resources
This page highlights news, publications and links regarding UN Resolution 1718. You may also type 1718 into "all contents" in the publication search engine or in the search bar above for a listing of documents posted on the website.
Updated NCNK Sanctions Report
April 5, 2009
This NCNK Sanctions Report, written by Karin J. Lee and Julia Choi, was last updated on February 6, 2009.
Sanctions Related News
July 16, 2009: U.N. Sanctions Updated Since Second Nuclear Test
On July 16, 2009, the U.N. Sanctions Committee issued a list of entities, goods, and individuals to be restricted by sanctions laid out by the United Nations Security Council. Generally, the UNSC was hoping to regulate such groups' activities and thereby halt any import or export of heavy weaponry or materials for nuclear exploration. Additionally, banks and financiers were targeted who have been known to provide for North Korean ballistic missile testing activities. Restricted goods included several materials used in the construction of nuclear warheads, and restricted individuals were generally directors of corporations with the power and contacts to import uranium for enrichment, as well as some involved in the DPRK's General Bureau of Atomic Energy (GBAE).
Note that these changes were made in accordance with UNSC Resolution 1874, which was in response to North Korea's second test of a nuclear device.
See More News Items Below
The UN Sanctions Committee's webpage posts all the official documents produced by the Sanctions Committee, usually several days after news stories are released.
The United States Mission to the UN webpage has comments about the DPRK made by US ambassadors to the UN, including comments leading up to and about the implementation of Resolution 1718.
Key UN and Government Documents and Releases
***Australia: Legislation Implementing 1718
Austrialia bonus: Bilaterial Sanctions Implementing 1695
This NCNK resource, a two-page timeline
of US sanctions against North Korea as well as key events in the sanctions regime incorporates the Commerce Department regulations imposed in January 2007.
This version of North Korea: Economic Sanctions and U.S. Treasury Department Actions, 1995-2006
provides an understanding of the background and the context of the current sanctions on the DPRK. The report includes a chart of current US economic sanctions as well as a sanctions timeline. This new version, released October 18, 2006, incorporates the adoption of UN Resolution 1718 as well as additional revisions.
Most Recent Congressional Research Service (CRS) Report
North Korea: Economic Sanctions, Updated October 17, 2006, by Dianne E. Rennack (Order Code RL31696).
Carnegie Endowment for Peace and the Henry L. Stimson Center: Next Steps on North Korea: Options Beyond Sanctions (Event Transcript), October 12, 2006
Friends Committee on National Legislation: North Korea Nuclear Test: United Nations Sanctions -- What's the Next Step? October 17, 2006
Ruediger Frank: The Political Economy of Sanctions Against North Korea, Asian Perspective, Vol. 30, #3, 2006
International Crisis Group: North Korea's Nuclear Test: The Fallout, Asia Briefing No. 56, 13 November, 2006
Paul Kerr: North Korea Sanctions Detailed, Arms Control Today, December 2006
David Lague and Donlad Greenless: Squeeze on Banco Delta Asia hit North Korea where it Hurt January 18, 2006
Marcus Noland: The (Non) Impact of UN Sanctions on North Korea December 2008
Timothy Savage: No Dessert for you, Kim Jong-Il!, Ohmynews, December 1, 2006
Leon V. Sigal: Cuba 1962 and North Korea Now, Nautlilus Institute Policy Forum Online 06-96A: November 14th, 2006
Scott Snyder: Smart Sanctions and North Korea [This article appeared in the Korean edition of JoongAng Ilbo on November 27, 2006.]
Mark J. Valencia: Maritime Interdiction of North Korean WMD Trade: Who Will Do What?,
Nautilus Institute Policy Forum Online 06-98A: November 3, 2006
Other Sanctions Related News Items
April 16, 2009: US and UN Submit Lists to the UN Sanctions Committee; Assets to be Frozen
Following the release of the Presidential Statement on April 13, the UN Security Council's Sanctions Committee met on April 15 implement expanded sanctions against North Korea, restricting more goods and entities thought to be supporting North Korea's nuclear weapons and missile programs. Japan and the US each submitted to the committee a list 14 and 11, respectively, of North Korean companies associated with military affairs. Japan's Yomiuri Shimbun identified on April 16 three companies on its list as Korea Tonghae Shipping Co., Pyongyang Informatics Center and Ponghwa Hospital. Two more North Korea companies on the list, according to The Washington Post, are Korea Mining Development Trading Corp. (Komid) and Tanchon Commercial Bank, which faced bilateral sanctions imposed by the United States in 2005.
April 14, 2009: UN Security Council Issues Statement
On April 13, 2009 the United Nations Security Council issued a Presidential Statement regarding the DPRK's Rocket Launch. The statement condemns the launch, calling it a contravention of UNSCR 1718 (2006) and "agrees to adjust the measures imposed by paragraph 8 of resolution 1718 (2006) through the designation of entities and goods." Paragraph 8 is the most punitive provision of 1718. It has never been fully implemented. The Sanctions Committee established for the oversight of 1718 is called on to produce a list by April 24; if it fails to do so the UNSC will produce a list April 30.
In a statement released on KCNA, the DPRK rejected the "brigandish" presidential statement. Saying that the "the six-party talks have turned into a platform for infringing upon the sovereignty of the DPRK," the DPRK stated that it "will never participate in the talks any longer nor it will be bound to any agreement of the six-party talks." IAEA inspectors have been asked to leave Yongbyon, and the DPRK has vowed to restart its nuclear program.
Remarks by Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Jiang Yu released on April 14 included the following statement:
"China always holds that the reaction of the Security Council should be aimed at ensuring the overall interests of peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula and in Northeast Asia, promoting the Six-Party Talks and the denuclearization process on the Peninsula, and safeguarding the international non-proliferation regime. In light of this spirit, China disagrees of a Security Council resolution on the launch, let alone new sanctions against the DPRK."
April 10, 2009 -- Japanese Sanctions
On April 10, 2009 the Japanese government renewed sanctions on the DPRK that were set to expire on April 13. The sanctions, first implemented in 2006, ban entry into Japanese ports of all North Korean flagged vessels and charted flights between Japan and the DPRK, as well as ban, in principle, visits by Japanese government officials to the DPRK and visits by DPRK government officials to Japan. The sanctions also ban all DPRK imports and payments for imports from the DPRK. The 2006 sanctions, initially implemented for six month and renewed for six month periods thereafter, wre renewed for a full year on April 10.
The Japanese government also instituted stricter reporting requirements on the amount of funds people in Japan can remit or transfer to the DPRK. The new regulations reduce the amount of funds that can be transferred undeclared to the DPRK from 30 million yen (US$298,000) to 10 million yen ($99,000). In addition, travelers can bring only 300,000 yen cash ($2,980) to the DPRK without reporting it; this is down from a previous limit of over a million yen.
Although the new reporting requirement has been called a "new sanction," it does not seem to be a genuine sanction since it does not limit remittances to the DPRK. According to Xinhua, Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Takeo Kawamura told reporters, "The measure is aimed at getting a clearer picture of fund flows to North Korea (DPRK)." He also said that the move is "appropriate giving consideration to the unsettled abduction issue."
Japan considered but rejected a ban on all exports to the DPRK. Newspapers report that the Japanese government thought such a ban would have little impact.
Japan Extends Sanctions -- 10/10/2008
With no progress on the abduction issue made, Japan extended sanctions an additional six months. These sanctions are set to expire on April 13, 2008.
Japanese sanctions may be partially lifted -- 6/13/2008
On June 13, the Mainichi Daily News announced that it would partially lift sanctions, including a ban on North Korean ships and visitors, in exchange for North Korea's promise to re-open investigations of the abductions of Japanese citizens. They also agreed to discuss members of the Japanese Red Army responsible for the 1970 high-jacking of a jet; four of the high-jackers are believed to remain in North Korea. The harboring of the Red Army members is routinely noted in U.S. terrorism list reports. Three daughters of the high-jackers born and raised in the DPRK were allowed to move to Japan in 2001, according to the BBC. There is no time-table for lifting the sanctions, which include a ban on a ferry used by ethnic Koreans in Japan to send goods and cash to the North, according to the Washington Post. The sanctions, which had been set to expire in April, were extended through October, as announced in March (see below).
Japan Extends Sanctions -- 03/16/2008
On March 16, 2008, Kyodo News reported that the Japanese government decided to extend sanctions for another six months after they expire on April 13, 2008, unless the DPRK makes progress on the abductee and other bilateral issues.
This is the third extension of sanctions, since the Japanese first imposed them after the October 2006 nuclear test.
US Sanctions on DPRK's Mining and Development Corporation -- -09/26/07
On September 26, 2007, the US government announced sanctions against North Korea, its state-owned Korea Mining and Development Corporation (KOMID) and its subsidiaries. According to South Korea's Yonhap News, US officials believe KOMID conducted missile transfers more than one year ago. KOMID had been previously identified as possible trading partner as early as 1998, and was designated in a 2005 US executive order for supporting weapons of mass destruction proliferation.
Banned Luxury Items
NCNK updates the matrix comparing the luxury items banned for export to the DPRK, adding Canada, Switzerland and the provisional EU list. Click here to download.
Japanese Cabinet Approves Plan for DPRK Sanctions -- -10/09/07
On October 9, 2007, Yomiuri Shimbun reported that the Japanese Cabinet officially approved a plan to extend year-old sanctions on the DPRK. These sanctions, which were originally imposed following the DPRK's 2007 nuclear test, will prohibit North Korean vessels and goods from entering Japan.
This approval came a week after North Korea announced it would disable and declare its nuclear program by the end of this year. Japan complains that there has been little progress in solving the abduction issue. Japan and North Korea recently held unsuccessful normalization talks in Mongolia last month.
Extension of Japanese Sanctions on the DPRK -- -09/08/07
According to Yomiuri Shimbun, the Japanese government has announced its intention to extend its ban on the entry of North Korean vessels into Japanese ports for an additional six months. The ban is set to expire on October 13, 2007.
This is the second time that Japan will have extended the six-month ban. The ban is one of the on-going sanctions imposed after North Korea's October 9 test of a nuclear device, which bans all imports from North Korea and the export of "luxury goods" to North Korea. The sanctions also prohibit the entry into Japan of North Korean nationals. These sanctions, which have no time-limit, will also continue.
The announcement was made after bilateral negotiations during which the DPRK and Japan failed to make progress in reconciling disputes over the abduction of Japanese citizens by North Korea during the 1970's and 1980's.
US Announces Imposition of New Foreign Policy Controls -- -01/26/07
On January 26, 2007 the U.S. Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) published in the Federal Register an amendment of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) "to impose license requirements for the export and re-export of virtually all items subject to the EAR to North Korea, except food and medicines not listed on the CCL [Commerce Control List]." In addition, the BIS released a list of luxury items prohibited from export and re-export to the DPRK. BIS stated that it will generally approve applications to export or re-export "non-food, non-medical humanitarian items (e.g., blankets, basic footwear, eating oil, and other items meeting subsistence needs) intended for the benefit of the North Korean people; items in support of United Nations humanitarian efforts; and agricultural commodities and medical devices that are determined not to be luxury goods."
Ambassador Marcello Spatafora of Italy will chair the 1718 Sanctions Committee in 2007.
US Pushes 1718 Sanctions Committee to Act; Warns of further Financial Sanctions -- -01/11/07
US Ambassador Jackie W. Sanders, Alternative Representative for Special Political Affairs, in a statement to the UN Security Council on January 11, 2007, expressed concern that "several important issues on the Committee's agenda remain unresolved," adding that "proposed amendments to the lists of items, materials, equipment, goods, and technology prohibited from export to, or import from, North Korea" have been proposed to the Committee. Sanders continued "For the sake of the credibility of the Committee and this sanctions regime, we wish to see these amendments adopted as quickly as possible," suggesting as a deadline the end of January.
Sanders also announced that the Unite States "intends to propose several entities to the 1718 Committee" pursuant to sub paragraph 8 (d) of the resolution 1718, which refers to the freezing of funds and financial assets of persons or entities designated by the Committee or Security Council as supporting the DPRK's WMD programs, or people or entities acting on their behalf.
UN Sanctions Committee Chair Reports on 1718 -- 01/11/07
Ambassador Peter Burian, Permanent Representative of Slovakia to the United Nations and Chair of the 1718 Sanctions Committee, briefed the UN Security Council on behalf of the Sanctions Committee on January 11, 2007. The Sanctions Committee "considered that any definition of luxury goods as may be necessary for Member States to implement this provision of the resolution would be the national responsibility of the Member States." The Sanctions Committee also "reaffirmed" that these measures are "not intended to restrict the supply of ordinary goods to the wider population of the country or to have a negative humanitarian impact on the DPRK."
Singapore Implements 1718 Sanctions -- 01/05/07
Yahoo Finance News reports that Singapore implemented the UN sanctions as of January 1, 2007, banning the shipment of luxury goods such as "cigars, luxury cars, fur products, wines and spirits" as well as heavy military equipment and WMD materials.
Japan Dismisses LDP Proposal for Additional Sanctions -- 12/28/06
After the second phase of the fifth round of six-party talks recessed without an agreement, the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan proposed additional sanctions, including more bans on trade and port calls and requiring financial institutions to report on overseas remittances to the DPRK over 10 million yen, rather than the current 300 million yen cut-off. According to The Japan Times (More Sanctions Against North off Table for Now), the Japanese government has concluded that the current Japanese sanctions regime -- perhaps the toughest implemented against the DPRK -- is adequate for the time being.
UN Approves "Other WMD" materials list banned for NK
UN Resolution 1718 referred to three lists of items associated with WMD programs that were to be prohibited from transfer to the DPRK: S/2006/814 (related to nuclear weapons programs); S/2006/815 (related to ballistic weapons programs) and S/2006/816 (related to "other" WMD programs, i.e. chemical and biological weapons), unless S/2006/816 were replaced. On November 1, the UN Security Council approved S/2006/853, which supersedes 816.According to UN Blocks Items From N. Korea, (Philadelphia Inquirer, Nov 2), Ambassador Peter Burian of Slovakia (chairman of the sanctions committee overseeing the implementation of UN 1718) indicated that that the committee will "turn now to designating people for the travel ban and asset freeze;" it is likely that individual states will create their own lists of "luxury goods." If you have trouble downloading these lists, see the Sanctions Committee's webpage.